The Lead x-ray doors require a customized installation for proper protective adherence. The heavy weight of the lead should be in with the door. The frame should be designed to provide support between the door and the lead-lined wall in the opposite walls. The doors should be installed in the areas that are devoid of excessive moisture which might come from cement or wet plaster. Before installation, the door frame should be appropriately set into the studded wall in order to support the door weight and size. The doors should be allowed to be familiar with the surrounding before original installation.
Leaded X-ray doors installation such as “The drywall” would conform to ASTM C36. Lead lining should be from 1/32? – 1/16? and if required 1/8?, while not recommended because of the heavy weight and handling. A suggested thickness of a single un-pierced sheet of lead in any preferred length is applied and bonded to the proper length of drywall/gypsum board. The drywall/gypsum boards are offered in a minimum size of 4? x 8? to a maximum 4? x 10? x 5/8? minimum thickness. 1/2? thick drywall is available but not recommended.
Also, the materials need to be in a vertical position with joints running from floor to ceiling as mandatory by standards. Drill pilot holes as essential to prevent deformation of a fastener, lead or distortion of the board. A minimum lead overlap of one inch is required at all joints and corners and the extension lead overhang at least one inch into all frames or openings.
The shielding of the door requires about 10kg/m2 sheet lead. The doors that lead to x-ray rooms should have not less than 15 kg/m2 lead. The frame of the entries is excluded from the requirement. For the necessary and maximum protection to be achieved, it is required that the steel door frames should be trifled to overlap the wall structure. An x-ray inspector service should visit the dental facility to monitor the operations, check records and perform test concerning the installation of the use of x-ray equipment to check for its compliance with the radiography Act.
Furthermore, to ensure proper radiation guidance act, According to a report of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements(NCRP) published by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD):
- Rule 36(4) of the Rules necessitates protective barriers to be used with a weekly radiation shielding design objective of 0.1 mSv for persons in controlled or open areas and 0.02 mSv for persons in uncontrolled open araeas.
- The distance of the occupied area of interest should be from the source to the nearest possible approach of a person sensitive organs. For a wall, this may be assumed to be not above 0.3 m. For a source situated above potentially occupied spaces, the distance can be placed on not more than 1.7 m beyond the lower floor. Also, for ceiling transmission, a distance of at least 0.5 m above, the floor of the room above is appropriate. (NCRP Report 147, Section 4.1.2)
- According to the rules, operator barriers should be designed to be the main protective barriers and to provide protection equivalent to at least 1/16-inch lead.
- Medical, dental and veterinary radiation facilities shielded in accordance with recommendations contained in NCRP Reports No. 145, No. 147, and No. 148 (NCRP, 2003a; 2004a; 2004b) (i.e., designed should not exceed an effective dose of 1 mSv per year to the maximally exposed individual in an uncontrolled area). According to the NCRP in Statement 10 of December 2004, It necessary to provide adequate protection to employees and members of the public when accessing the uncontrolled areas. An effective dose for uncontrolled regions that does not exceed 1 mSv per year is resonable, based on the NCRP in Statement 10, by the conventional safe assumptions used in the recommended shielding design approach.
- Based on ICRP (1991), NCRP (1993) and Rule 60(1) recommendations for the yearly limit of effective dose to a member of the general public, shielding designs shall limit exposure of all individuals in open uncontrolled areas to an effective dose that does not exceed 1 mSv each year. Following a review of the application of the guidance in NCRP (1993) to medical radiation facilities, NCRP has concluded that a suitable source control for shielding individuals in open areas in or near medical radiation facilities is an effective dose of 1 mSv in each year [see Section 1.4.2 of NCRP Report # 147]. Based on the NCRP in Report 147, this recommendation can be achieved for the medical radiation facilities covered in and designed to meet Reports No. 145, No. 147, and No. 148 with a weekly shielding design aim of 0.02 mGy air kerma (i.e., an annual air-kerma value of 1 mGy) for uncontrolled open areas.
- Vertical barriers must go beyond the floor to a minimum height of 7 feet. Yet, if it is necessary to add additional shielding to the ceiling of the room, then the shielding in the walls must be extended above the 7-foot height to overlap the ceiling shielding. Also, if there is a multi-story building in close proximity of the x-ray room, and if that building has occupied space that could be exposed to scatter or secondary radiation that is not attenuated by the 7-foot-high wall shielding, then additional shielding may be necessary to protect that occupied space.
The presence of leaded x-ray doors are of great importance to both the clinical staffs and their patients this is because protection comes first. Radiation-resistant doors are vital when building a safe environment in medical offices and hospitals. Radiation shielding is very important, despite the fact that people do not give much significance to this aspect. Radiations are important for our modern lives and because of them we’ve made advances in diagnostic imaging and medicine. However, the effect of radiation when not used properly or the proper precautions are not taken often presents late effects and most people don’t realise it when they are radiated, but after some time, the negative effects of radiation show up. This is why the areas in which radiation is being used should be properly protected and controlled in order not to spread the radiations to unwanted areas. Hence, hospital doors should be lead lined doors, which would absorb the radiations and not let them exit the room.
Leaded X-ray doors are ideally suited for hospital ideally suited to hospitals and other sterile environments where hygiene and x-ray protection are of utmost importance. The essence of this is to prevent unwanted exposure to radiation coming out from the x-ray room. The use of lead on the door helps to prevent radiation because it has higher density and atomic number. It has a significant effect in stopping x-rays like gamma rays and Beta-rays. Failure to use lead; it will lead to severe damage to the soft tissues, resulting in cancer and gene mutation.
The leaded X-ray door comes with Lead line door sets incorporate lead sheeting in a range of thicknesses. This protection extends through the door frames, forming an effective barrier to radiation in all directions.
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been accepted virtually in almost all the field of dentistry and has been widely used in dental clinics for over a decade. The increasing usage of imaging and the consequential effect of radiation exposure have created significant concern among health practitioners’ on reduced doses and patients’ safety. While the benefits of CBCT examination have been reported extensively, the radiation dose to the patient especially children is also very significant. This is why the Low Dose CBCT Xray was introduced.
The Low Dose CBCT Xray captures data using a cone-shaped x-ray beam. CBCT x-ray is used mainly to detect abnormal teeth, endodontic diagnosis, diagnosis of dental trauma etc. the radiation coming out from CBCT x-ray is much lower than those coming out from other CT-exams. This poses an advantage over other x-rays because younger patients proved to be more sensitive to radiation and the side effect (radiation) will take a longer time before it manifest. Thus low dose CBCT Xray help reduce the risk of radiation in children due to its low level of the Panoramic image to protect the young patient and information level of a CBCT image for the most appropriate treatment.
Also, when patients are planning for the best treatment such as implantation, the patients are concerned about the implantation was completed successfully. Low dose CBCT x-ray provides the best planning and the treatment because it is the only device that gives accurate CBCT image for necessary information to be 100% assured. Thus, with low does CBCT xray, dentists are able to assure their patient that everything went well at the low level of an intra-oral scan.